Wednesday, November 26, 2014

1600s Music & Merriment Indoors from Judith Leyster 1609-60


Judith Leyster (Dutch artist, 1609-60) Self-Portrait 1635

One of only 2 female members of the painters' guild in her native Haarlem, Judith Leyster was an independent Dutch artist with her own workshop & pupils.  She was a student of Frans Hals by the age of 23.

Judith Leyster (Dutch artist, 1609-60) The Music Makers. c 1631-33

Judith was the 8th child of a brewer & clothmaker. Her father declared bankruptcy in 1624.

Judith Leyster (1609-60) Girl with a Lute

By the time she was 18, Leyster was already mentioned favorably in a book about culture in Haarlem.  “Within the next few years she established her own workshop and took on apprentices who were all, as far as documents indicate, young men.” James E. Welu; Pieter Biesboer Woman’s Art Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Autumn, 1995 – Winter, 1996), 

Judith Leyster (Dutch artist, 1609-60) The Happy Couple Detail 1630

Her work was influenced by the content & style of genre paintings created by the noted Haarlem artists Frans Hals & his brother Dirck.


Judith Leyster (Dutch artist, 1609-60) Girl with a Straw Hat 1633-35

Leyster painted lively genre scenes of people enjoying themselves in taverns, playing music, & socializing.

Judith Leyster (Dutch artist, 1609-60) A Game of Backgammon Detail

Such genre paintings & portraits were popular with Holland's newly prosperous middle-class, the principal buyers of local art during Lyster‘s lifetime.

Judith Leyster (Dutch artist, 1609-60) Portrait of a Woman

Leyster produced most of her paintings between ca. 1629 & 1635; her artistic output decreased dramatically after her marriage in 1636 to the painter Jan Miense Molenaer.


Judith Leyster (1609-60) The Proposition. Detail 1631

The couple moved to Amsterdam & had at least 5 children. By 1649, the family was back in Haarlem, where Leyster spent the remainder of her life.


Judith Leyster (1609-60) A Game of Cards


1600s A little music & a lot of drama by Artemisia Gentileschi 1593–1652


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Saint Cecilia c 1620



Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Judith and Her Maid Servant with the Head of Holofernes c 1613

Artemisia Gentileschi 1593–1652 was an Italian Early Baroque painter, influenced by Caravaggio. She was the 1st female painter to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Jael and Sisera c 1620

Artemisia painted pictures of strong, suffering women from myth & the Bible - victims, suicides, warriors. She was especially drawn to the biblical stories of Judith beheading Holofernes story & to the sexual assault of Susanna.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Susanna and the Elders c 1610

Artemisia was born in Rome, the eldest child of the Tuscan painter Orazio Gentileschi. She learned painting under her father, whose style took inspiration from Caravaggio during that period, but her approach to subject matter was realistic & natural, where Orazio's were idealized.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Judith Beheading Holofernes c 1612

Susanna & the Elders was one of the earliest works of 17-year-old Artemisia, depicting the sexual assault of the two Elders as a traumatic event. Artemisia was herself assaulted sexually, although it was after the completion of this painting.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Penitent Magdalene c 1631

In 1612, her father was working with Agostino Tassi to decorate the vaults of Casino della Rose inside the Pallavicini Rospigliosi Palace in Rome. Orazio hired the painter to tutor his daughter privately. During this tutelage, Tassi raped Artemisia. Another man, Cosimo Quorlis helped Tassi with the rape.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Judith Beheading Holofernes c 1620

After the initial rape, Artemisia continued to have sexual relations with Tassi, believing that they were going to be married. However, Tassi reneged on his promise to marry Artemisia; after he claimed that he heard a rumour, that she was having an affair with another man.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Susanna and the Elders c 1622

The livid father Orazio pressed charges against Tassi, when he learned that Artemisia & Tassi were not going to be married. Orazio also claimed that Tassi stole a painting of Judith from the Gentileschi household. The major issue of the trial was the initial rape of Artemisia. If Artemisia had not been a virgin before Tassi raped her, the Gentileschis would not have been able to press charges.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes

In the ensuing 7-month trial, it was discovered that Tassi also had planned to murder his wife, had committed adultery with his sister-in-law, & had planned to steal some of Orazio’s paintings.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Corsica and Satyr c 1640

During the trial, Artemisia was given a gynecological examination & was tortured using thumbscrews. But the young artist finally won the court case. At the end of the trial Tassi was sentenced to imprisonment for 1 year, although he never served the time.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Mary Magdalen

One month after the trial, Orazio hastily arranged for his daughter to marry Pierantonio Stiattesi, a modest artist from Florence. Shortly afterwards the couple moved to Florence, where Artemisia received a commission for a painting at Casa Buonarroti & became a successful court painter, enjoying the patronage of the Medici family and Charles I.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Salome with the Head of John the Baptist

While in Florence, Artemisia & Pierantonio had four sons & one daughter. But only the daughter, Prudenzia, survived to adulthood. During the 1620s she also worked in Genoa and Venice; but by 1630, she settled in Naples, where she remained for the rest of her life, except for a brief excursion to London.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Mary Magdalen as Melancholy c 1622

Well over 35 extant paintings are attributed to Artemisia, but it is difficult to sort out which are actually hers. Her most powerful paintings are of vulnerable but strong women, and these are examples of those.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Esther Before Ahasuerus c 1630


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652 St Catherine of Alexandria


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Susanna and the Elders c 1649


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652 Lucretia c 1642


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Lot and his Daughters c 1636

Click here to see more paintings with Judith and Holofernes throughout the centuries. There are separate listings by century.


1600s Music + great pearl chokers & costumes & doves attributed to John Michael Wright 1617-1694



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) attributed to... Lady Anne Bruce, Daughter of 2nd Earl of Elgin, Robert Bruce 1665-70s



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Barbara Palmer, nee Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland 1670



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) copy of... Grace Wilbraham, Countess of Dysart c 1673-77



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Elizabeth Claypole, nee Cromwell c 1658



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Frances Cromwell, Daughter of Oliver Cromwell c 1658



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Francisca Posthuma Legh, Lady Richard Brooke c 1683



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Johanna St John, Wife of Sir Walter St John 3rd



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Lady Mary Bagot and her Granddaughter Mary, Later Lady Parker



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Magdalen Aston, Lady Burdett 1669



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Margaret Onley, Mrs George Vernon 1660



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Mary Bagot, Countess of Dorset c 1670



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Mary Fairfax, Duchess of Buckingham aft 1659



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Mary Scrope, the Honourable Mrs Henry Arundell



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Mary Spencer, Lady Arundell of Wardour 1662-65



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Miss Butterworth of Belfield Hall 1650-70 2



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Miss Butterworth of Belfield Hall 1650-70



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Mrs Edward Onley



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Mrs Salesbury with her Grandchildren Edward and Elizather Bagot 1675-76



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) after his style... Mary Wilbraham, Countess Bradford c 1673-77



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) or after him, Elizabeth Washington, Lady Ferrers, as Minerva



John Michael Wright (British artist, 1617-1694) Unknown Woman c 1660

1700s Colonial American portraits with Garden Fountains



 1763 John Singleton Copley (Colonial American artist, 1738-1815).  Alice Hooper



 1763 John Singleton Copley (Colonial American artist, 1738-1815). Mary Turner (Mrs. Daniel Sargent).



1767 John Singleton Copley (Colonial American artist, 1738-1815). Portrait of Rebecca Boylston