Wednesday, September 17, 2014

A little gossip - Queen Anne of Austria & Spain 1601–1666

1621 Anne of Austria (1601–1666) by Frans Pourbus the younger

Anne of Austria (1601–1666) was Queen consort of France & Navarre, regent for her son, Louis XIV of France, & a Spanish Infanta by birth. During her regency (1643–1651) Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister and, perhaps, more.

Anne of Austria, Queen of France as a child by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz (1553–1608)

Born at Benavente Palace in Valladolid, Spain, & baptised Ana María Mauricia, she was the eldest daughter of two Habsburg parents, Philip III of Spain & Margaret of Austria. She held the titles of Infanta of Spain & of Portugal & Archduchess of Austria. Despite having been a native of Spain, she was referred to as "...of Austria" due to the fact that the Habsburgs were originally from Austria.

Anne d'Autriche Reine de France

Anne was raised mainly at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid. Unusually, Anne grew up close to her parents, & lived a rather calm & orderly life when compared to other royal children. Her parents were very religious; & she was raised accordingly, often visiting monasteries during her childhood. When she was 10 in 1611, she lost her mother, who died in childbirth.  She was the oldest girl; & despite her grief, Anne did her best to take care of her younger siblings, who referred to her with affection as mother.

Anne of Austria (1601–1666) as a young Princess

Anne was betrothed at age 11 to Louis XIII. Her father gave her a dowry of 500,000 crowns & many beautiful jewels. For fear that Louis XIII would die early, the Spanish court stipulated that Anne would return to Spain with her dowry, jewels, & wardrobe, if he did die.

Anne of Austria (1601–1666) as a young Princess

The financial pre-nuptual agreement, between nations rather than bride & groom, satisfied, Anne was saluted as the Queen of France, "a dignity which her Highness accepts with marvellous dignity & gravity." By agreement, prior to the marriage, Anne renounced all succession rights she had had for herself & her descendants by Louis, with a provision that, she would resume her rights should she be left a childless widow.

Anne of Austria (1601–1666) Femme de Louis XIII Roy de France et de Navarre

On 24 November 1615, Louis & Anne were married by proxy in Burgos, while Louis's sister, Elizabeth, & Anne's brother, Philip IV of Spain, were married by proxy in Bordeaux. These marriages followed the tradition of a matrimonial cementing of military & political alliances between France & Spain that began with the marriage of Philip II of Spain to Elisabeth of Valois in 1559, as part of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. Anne & Elisabeth were both exchanged on the Isle of Pheasants, between Hendaye & Fuenterrabía.  Anne was lively & beautiful during her youth. She was also a noted equestrian, a skill her son, Louis, would inherit. At the time, Anne had many admirers, including the handsome Duke of Buckingham, although her intimates believed their flirtations remained chaste.

1621-1625 Anne of Austria (1601–1666) by Peter Paul Rubens

Anne & Louis, both 14 years old, were pressured to consummate the marriage in order to forestall any possibility of future annulment, but Louis wasn't interested & ignored his bride.

1622 Anne of Austria (1601–1666) by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Felipe III's daughter  married young Louis XIII (son of Marie de Medici)

Louis's domineering mother, Marie de' Medici, continued to conduct herself as queen of France, without showing any deference to her daughter-in-law. Young Anne, surrounded by her entourage of high-born Spanish ladies-in-waiting, continued to live according to Spanish etiquette & failed to improve her French.

1622-1625 Anne of Austria (1601–1666) by Peter Paul Rubens

In 1617, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes, to dispense with the influence of his mother in a palace coup d'état, having her favorite Concino Concini assassinated in April of that year.

Anne of Austria (1601–1666) attributed to Jean de Saint-Igny

During the years he was in the ascendancy, the duc de Luynes attempted to remedy the formal distance between Louis & his queen. He knew they would need an heir.  He sent away the Spanish ladies & replaced them with French attendants, notably the princesse de Conti & Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, his wife, & organized court events that would bring the couple together under amiable circumstances.

1649 Anne of Austria (1601–1666)

With her Spanish friends dispatched back to their homeland, Anne began to dress & speak in the French manner; & in 1619, Luynes pressed the King to bed his queen. Some affection did develop, as Louis became distracted during a serious illness of his queen.

Anne of Austria (1601–1666) with child

A series of miscarriages disenchanted the King & put a chill their relations.  In 1622, while playing with her ladies, Anne fell on a staircase & suffered her 2nd miscarriage. Louis blamed her & was angry with Madame de Luynes for having encouraged the queen in what was seen as negligence.

Anne of Austria (1601–1666) and baby Louis

Henceforth, the King had less tolerance for the influence the duchesse de Luynes had over Anne, & the situation deteriorated after the death of Luynes in 1621. The King's attention was monopolized by his war against the Protestants, while the queen defended the remarriage of her inseparable companion to her lover, Claude, Duke of Chevreuse, in 1622.

Anne of Austria (1601–1666) and little Louis XIV

Louis turned now to Cardinal Richelieu as his advisor. Richelieu's foreign policy of struggle against the Habsburgs, who surrounded France on 2 fronts, inevitably created tension between himself & Anne, who remained childless for another 16 years. Louis depended even more on Richelieu, who was his 1st minister from 1624.

Louis XIII, Anne of Austria, and their son Louis XIV, flanked by Cardinal Richelieu and the Duchesse de Chevreuse.

Under the influence of the duchesse de Chevreuse, the queen let herself be drawn into political opposition to Richelieu & became embroiled in several intrigues against his policies.

Anne of Austria with her sons the future King Louis XIV of France, and Philippe I, Duke of Orléans.

Vague rumors of her betrayal circulated in the court, notably her supposed involvement with the conspiracies of the comte de Chalais that Chevreuse organized in 1626, then of the king's treacherous favorite, Cinq-Mars, who had been introduced to him by Richelieu.

Anne of Austria (1601–1666) in mourning holding a portrait of Louis XIV

In 1635, France declared war on Spain, placing the Queen in an untenable position. Her secret correspondence with her brother Philip IV of Spain passed beyond the bonds of sisterly affection. In August 1637, Anne came under so much suspicion, that Richelieu forced her to sign covenants regarding her correspondence, which was henceforth open to inspection. Her friend the duchesse de Chevreuse was exiled & close watch was kept on the queen.

Anne of Austria (1601–1666) by Charles Beaubrun (1604-1692)

Surprisingly, in such a climate of distrust, the queen was pregnant once more, a circumstance that contemporary gossip attributed to a single stormy night that prevented Louis from travelling to Saint-Maur & obliged him to spend the night with the queen.

Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638, securing the Bourbon line. At this time, Anne was 37. The official newspaper Gazette de France called the birth "a marvel when it was least expected." One German diplomat would refer to the King's "quite extraordinary birth" 40 years after the event.
The birth soon afterwards of a 2nd son failed to re-establish confidence or affection between the royal couple. It was at Saint-Germain-en-Laye that Anne gave birth to her 2nd son, Philippe de France, Duke of Anjou & later the founder of the modern House of Orléans.

Anne of Austria by Charles Beaubrun (1604-1692)

Richelieu made Louis XIII a gift of his palatial hôtel, the Palais Cardinal, north of the Louvre, in 1636; but the king never took possession of it. Anne fled to the Louvre to install herself there with her 2 small sons, & remained as regent (hence the name Palais-Royal that the structure still carries). Louis tried to prevent Anne from obtaining the regency after his death, which came in 1643, not long after that of Richelieu.

Anne was named regent upon her husband's death in spite of her late husband's wishes. With the aid of Pierre Séguier, she had the Parlement de Paris revoke the will of the late king, which would have limited her powers. Their 4-year-old son was crowned King Louis XIV of France. Anne assumed the regency but to general surprise entrusted the government to the chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin, who was a protegé of Cardinal Richelieu. Mazarin left the hôtel Tuboeuf to take up residence at the Palais Royal near Queen Anne. Before long he was believed to be her lover; &, it was hinted, even her husband.

Anne with her niece & daughter-in-law, Maria Theresa of Spain, & grandson, Louis. Two Queens of France Anne d'Autriche with her niece & daughter-in-law, Marie-Thérèse d'Espagne, who holds her son.

With Mazarin's support, Anne overcame the revolt of aristocrats, led by Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, that became known as the Fronde. In 1651, when her son Louis XIV officially came of age, her regency legally ended. However, she kept much power & influence over her son until the death of Mazarin in 1661. In 1659, the war with Spain ended with the Treaty of the Pyrenees. The following year, peace was cemented by the marriage of the young King to Anne's niece, the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Theresa of Spain. In 1661, the same year as the death of her friend & confidant Mazarin, an heir to the throne was born, Anne's first grandchild Louis de France. Some time after, Anne retired to the convent of Val-de-Grâce, where she died of breast cancer 5 years later. Her lady-in-waiting Madame de Motteville wrote the story of the queen's life in her Mémoires d'Anne d'Autriche.

At the Farmers' Market - Historic American Seeds and Plant Catalogs from Smithsonian Institution Libraries

New Hampshire's Abigail Abbot Bailey's abusive & incestuous husband also fought in the Revolution

Abigail Abbot (1746-1815) & Asa Bailey (1745- c 1815-25) of New Hampshire had been married in 1767; farmed; & produced 14 children over their 25 years of marriage.  

The Pleasures of Matrimony by Thomas Colley 1773

During that time, Asa also fought in the Revolution; had an affair; raped a servant; beat his wife; & had incest with his 17 year-old daughter. They finally divorced in 1793.  Her own words--

One result of all my examinations and prayers was, a settled conviction, that I ought to seek a separation from my wicked husband, and never to settle with him any more for his most vile conduct. But as sufficient evidence, for his legal conviction, had not yet offered itself, (though I as much believed his guilt, as I believed my own existence,) I thought God’s time to bring Mr. B.'s conduct to public view had not yet arrived. But I was confident that such a time would arrive; that God would bring his crimes to light; and afford me opportunity to be freed from him.

Several months had passed, after Mr. B’s last wicked conduct before mentioned, and nothing special took place. The following events then occurred. One of our young daughters, (too young to be a legal witness, but old enough to tell the truth,) informed one of her sisters, older than herself, what she saw and heard, more than a year before, on a certain sabbath. This sister being filled with grief and astonishment at what she had heard, informed her oldest sister. When this oldest sister had heard the account, and was prepared to believe it, (after all the strange things which she herself had seen and heard,) she was so shocked, that she fainted. She was then at our house, I administered camphire, and such things as were suitable in her case. She soon revived. She then informed me of the occasion of her fainting. I had long before had full evidence to my mind of Mr. B’s great wickedness in this matter; and I thought I was prepared to hear the worst. But verily the worst was dreadful! The last great day will unfold it. I truly at this time had a new lesson added, to all that ever I before heard, or conceived, of human depravity.

I was now determined to go and see the daughter, who had suffered such things. Mr. B. perceiving my design to go where she was, set himself to prevent it. But kind Providence soon afforded me an opportunity to go. She was living at the house of her uncle, a very amiable man, and one whom Mr. B. in his better days, esteemed most highly; but of whom he became very shy, after he abandoned himself to wickedness. Mr. B. now could not endure the thought of my going to his house. No doubt his guilty conscience feared what information I might there obtain, and filled him with terror.

With much difficulty, and by the help of her aunt, I obtained ample information. I now found that none of my dreadful apprehensions concerning Mr. B’s conduct had been too high. And I thought the case of this daughter was the most to be pitied of any person I ever knew. I wondered how the author of her calamities could tarry in this part of the world. I thought that his guilty conscience must make him flee; and that shame must give him wings, to fly with the utmost speed.

My query now was, what I ought to do? I had no doubt relative to my living any longer with the author of our family miseries. This point was fully settled. But whether it would be consistent with faithfulness to suffer him to flee, and not be made a monument of civil justice, was my query. The latter looked to me inexpressibly painful. And I persuaded myself, that if he would do what was right, relative to our property, and would go to some distant place, where we should be afflicted with him no more, it might be sufficient; and I might be spared the dreadful scene of prosecuting my husband.

I returned home, I told Mr. B. I had heard an awful account relative to some man. I mentioned some particulars, without intimating who the man was; or what family was affected by it. I immediately perceived he was deeply troubled! He turned pale, and trembled, as if he had been struck with death. It was with difficulty he could speak. He asked nothing, who the man was, that had done this great wickedness; but after a while said, I know you believe it to be true; and that all our children believe it; but it is not true! Much more he said in way of denying. But he said he did not blame me for thinking as I did.

He asked me, what I intended to do? I replied, that one thing was settled: I would never live with him any more! He soon appeared in great anguish; and asked what I could advise him to do? Such was his appearance, that the pity of my heart was greatly moved. He had been my dear husband; and had destroyed himself. And now he felt something of his wretchedness.

I now felt my need of christian fortitude, to be firm in pursuing my duty. I was determined to put on firmness, and go through with the most interesting and undesirable business, to which God, in his providence, had called me, and which I had undertaken. I told him his case to me looked truly dreadful and desperate. That though I had long and greatly labored for his reformation and good, yet he had rejected all my advice. He had felt sufficient to be his own counsellor; and now he felt something of the result of his own counsels.

Relative to his question, what he now should do? I told Mr. B. he knew something of my mind, from an interview upon the subject sometime since, when he proposed retiring to some distant region, and forever leaving me and his family. I informed him, I now could see no better way for him than this; that I had rather see him gone forever, than to see him brought to trial, and have the law executed upon him, to the torture of myself and family; as it would be, unless he prevented it by flight.

He was then full of his consultations, relative to the mode of his going;—whether to ride, or go on foot? what property to take? and similar queries. I let him know that I was willing he should ride, and not only take a horse, but take property enough to make him comfortable. I proposed he should turn a one hundred acre lot, which we could well spare, and take the avails of it.

Source: Abigail Abbot Bailey, Memoirs of Mrs. Abigail Bailey, Who Had Been the Wife of Major Asa Bailey, Formerly of Landaff, (N.H.) Written by Herself Ed. Ethan Smith. (Boston: Samuel T. Armstrong, 1815)

Dog Days of Summer - Over 40 Dogs of the Middle Ages "rescued" from illuminations, tapestries, & even playing cards...

 Vers 1495. Carreau du palais d'Isabelle d'Este à Mantoue.

 Regnault de Montauban, rédaction en prose. Regnault de Montauban, tome 1er Date d'édition 1451-1500

 Museum Meermanno, MMW, 10 B 25, Folio 15v

 15th century tapestry - detail of a dog

 Stuttgart playing cards, ca. 1430

 Medieval illumination of a dog, 14th century, from a Codex in the Czech Republic

 Piero della Francesca - detail of the dogs from St Sigismund and Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta

A Dog from the tapestry series The Lady and the Unicorn.

Unicorn tapestries hanging in the Queen’s Inner Hall of the Palace at Stirling Castle.

 A grayhound in Pisanello's Portrait of a Princess of the House of Este (c. 1440s)

 A Mounted Battle with Gillion and Ertan the Saracen (detail), Lieven van Lathem, after 1464

 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library 15C Book of Hours Bruges or Ghent 15C MS 287

 Bodleian Library, MS. Ashmole 1462, Folio 53r perhaps a greyhound

 Chaucerian dog

 Circle of Konrad Witz, Three Hunting Dogs (ca. 1440-45)

 Da Vinci Dachshunds

 Detail from Diana and her maidens hunting in L'Epitre Othea, c 1410-14

 Detail from the arrival of Isabeau of Bavaria at Paris c 1470-75

 Detail from the arrival of Isabeau of Bavaria at Paris c 1470-1475

 Detail from the arrival of the King of France with his army, Croiques d'Angleterre, 1479-80

 Dog (from Historia Plantarum, ms. 459, Biblioteca Casanatense, Rome)

 Domenico Cavalca , Vite di Santi Padri. Domenico Cavalca. Auteur du texte 1401-1500

Errol Le Cain illustration for The Thorn Rose Detail

 Erweckung des toten Knaben durch den Hl. Andreas - 1450 ; 1500  St. Pölten  Österreich Detail

 France circa 1490

 Gefangennahme des Hl. Johannes des Täufers 1498

Gualenghi-d'Este Hours Taddeo Crivelli, illuminator; Guglielmo Giraldi, illuminator Italian, Ferrara, about 1469

 Head of a Greyhound,  Antonio Puccio Pisano (Pisanello) (c. 1395-c.1455)

 Horae ad usum Parisiensem [Grandes Heures de Jean de Berry 1400-10

Loyset Liedet, (active 1448-1478), The Garden of Love, Vellum, Dimensions unknown, Paris, Bibliotheque de I'Arsenat

 Medieval Bestiary  Dog

 Medieval Bestiary Dog

 Medieval Dogs

 Pisanello, Pisano Antonio di Puccio (fl 1395-1455) Lourve

 Pisanello, Pisano Antonio di Puccio (fl 1395-1455)

 The Annunciation to the Shepherds (detail), Spitz Master, c1420

 Detail from Lucas Cranach the Elder. Die Melancholie 1531

 z Late 13C France U 964 Biblia Porta Lausanne, Bibliothèque Cantonale et Universitaire

Taddeo Crivelli, white sleeping dog from the Bible of Borso d'Este, 1455